Wednesday, March 5, 2014

Understanding Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)

One of the most frequently asked questions about the RBN has to do with the meaning of the SNR that is included in each spot.  I've been answering these questions, and, as I learned yesterday, propagating some incorrect information.  The following is derived verbatim from an e-mail exchange I had yesterday with Alex, VE3NEA, and is reproduced here with his permission.

"The SNR in CW Skimmer and in SkimServ is computed the same way. The signal is extracted from the I/Q stream using a filter with a bandwidth of 50 Hz. First the key-on/key-off decision is made for every sample in the signal, as part of CW detection. The samples corresponding to the key-off state and on/off transitions are discarded, the key-on samples are analyzed. The signal strength is computed assuming the Rayleigh fading model (in other words, signal strength variations due to QSB are expected and taken into account). The noise density is estimated from the flat part of the power spectrum. The noise power in 500 Hz isthen computed by multiplying the power density by the bandwidth. Finally, theratio of the signal power to the 500-Hz noise power is computed."

One issue people have been wondering about is whether stations operating in the crowded lower part of the band might be "penalized" with lower SNR reports due to QRM, as compared with stations CQing higher up in the band.  Alex disagrees.  He says:

"I have performed a series of SNR accuracy tests on the simulated CW signals and verified that the SNR is determined correctly even at the station densities as high as 10 stations per kHz, and the average SNR of those stations of at least 60 dB."  He goes on, "The SNR is computed using the history of the measurements. The signal strength is estimated in the 50-Hz filter passband, while the noise is estimated globally in the whole receiver bandwidth of 48/96/192 kHz." 
 
I had earlier understood that SNR was calculated in a relatively short interval just before the spot was sent to the Telnet server.  Turns out that the calculation is based on data collected in the 50-Hz decoder channel for about 45 seconds up to the moment when the spot is validated and forwarded to the Telnet server.

So, I hope this helps.  The SNR numbers are better than I had thought, though still relative and dependent on each RBN contributor's antenna, receiver(s) and noise envirnment.

73, Pete N4ZR

Sunday, March 2, 2014

2014 ARRL DX CW - RBN Spot Stats by N6TV

2014 ARRL DX CW

Active Skimmers

Skimmer       Spots    Mean S/N
---------   -------    --------
HA6PX-#       98372        52.3
KM3T-#        96662        36.9
K8ND-#        94130        48.4
AA4VV-#       91251        36.6
W3OA-#        88590        55.2
KB9AMG-#      81679        38.1
DL1EMY-#      81497        45.2
DF4UE-#       78961        35.7
OH2BBT-#      77356        46.1
WA7LNW-#      77188        54.6
DQ8Z-#        75604        40.3
S50ARX-#      75462        36.7
AC0C-#        74864        50.0
DJ9IE-#       70299        48.3
ES5PC-#       69374        44.1
K1TTT-#       69139        59.1
G0KTN-#       67528        38.9
DF7GB-#       67086        39.6
N7TR-#        65942        46.9
OH6BG-#       65799        45.8
DJ3AK-#       65148        35.9
F6IIT-#       63402        41.3
HB9DCO-#      63259        37.8
DL9GTB-#      63153        44.5
WE9V-#        62790        36.6
NN3RP-#       62108        39.7
DK0TE-#       61683        33.1
EA4TX-#       59383        26.3
TF3Y-#        57283        37.4
SK3W-#        55847        57.5
SM6FMB-#      54966        52.6
N6TV-#        54751        29.6
IK3STG-#      53366        61.8
DK9IP-#       53214        32.1
SE0X-#        52075        39.0
W3LPL-#       51754        55.6
VE6AO-#       50277        36.4
PJ2T-#        49939        31.1
HB9SOF-#      48314        29.4
KQ8M-#        47682        62.9
DL2CC-#       46557        36.7
G0PZA-#       45748        30.4
N4ZR-#        45587        41.4
N8MSA-#       45105        29.4
NC7J-#        44057        30.0
LA5EKA-#      43319        34.8
US0KW-#       43042        27.5
W8WTS-#       41868        50.6
PA1T-#        41351        40.0
W4KKN-#       40995        41.0
S55HHH-#      40305        27.2
RZ3DVP-#      40288        30.6
WE4S-#        39474        33.3
KA9SWE-#      38825        43.1
DL3KR-#       35751        48.8
ZL2HAM-#      35696        27.1
SK2AT-#       32133        44.0
R6YY-#        31089        30.8
V51YJ-#       29157        18.8
W4AX-#        28892        29.8
SV8RV-#       28148        20.9
EI6BT-#       28031        38.5
WB2LSI-#      28021        48.1
HA6M-#        25295        34.9
HA1VHF-#      24701        42.2
RN3A-#        23549        28.7
KU5B-#        23486        56.6
DF1LON-#      22605        42.0
K7EG-#        20201        33.1
ZL2RV-#       18443        24.0
W1NT-#        17598        35.8
OM3WZ-#       17217        63.2
N0TA-#        16740        32.2
JE1SGH-#      15511        30.6
KJ4SPG-#      15069        31.9
JJ1LIB-#      14230        34.7
K5TDA-#       12115        36.4
PY1KN-#       11961        16.8
ZL1AOX-#      11697        36.4
WA3OPY-#      11612        21.9
JA4ZRK-#      11597        30.2
W4KAZ-#       11301        35.3
BA7NQ-#       10847        25.1
NZ1U-#        10808        73.0
F4EGZ-#       10785        29.9
UT2UU-#       10620        35.9
NU6O-#        10261        65.6
VU2PTT-#       9826        17.0
F5VLY-#        9689        44.9
RN4WA-#        9575        32.6
TF4M-#         8887        39.9
XV4Y-#         8318        21.9
JA1LZR-#       8231        41.4
K0FTC-#        7226        63.7
PY1NB-#        6528        34.1
S55OO-#        6086        59.0
OZ5W-#         5054        48.2
RZ9UN-#        4578        33.7
ON6ZQ-#        4469        41.2
G4MKR-#        4412        41.5
VE9BWK-#       4295        67.5
R4WT-#         4048        29.1
VE7AB-#        3593        40.9
JG1VGX-#       3001        20.1
JF2IWL-#       2917        44.2
W2MKM-#        2636        38.8
DL0LBS-#       2549        30.2
N6GEO-#        2379        39.9
7M1MCY-#       2187        48.3
GI4DOH-#       2154        31.4
DK1MAX-#       1625        38.0
WB8BIL-#       1580        29.7
HA2EQD-#       1530        37.7
G4IRN-#        1439        44.3
BH1LHS-#       1328        71.3
KL2R-#          795        52.9
LY2XW-#         773        34.7
IK0XBX-#        495        74.6
ON5KQ-#         382        32.9
M0OSH-#         310        49.7
W2RDX-#         291        19.7
GW8IZR-#        229        41.9
SM2IUF-#        138        39.4
EA5WU-#         112        29.9
DO4DXA-#        101        36.1
EI6KH-#          69         5.6
EA6VQ-#          60         4.6
OK2AW-#          55        81.6
K6XT-#           50        19.4
DE1LON-#         43        39.6
N4BAF-#          35        26.8
HB9FMN-#         25        74.8
VK2CCC-#         17        43.7
I6MAT-#          11         7.5

2014 ARRL DX CW

Frequency Coverage Per Skimmer

Skimmer        Band       Spots    Min Freq    Max Freq
---------   -------    --------    --------    --------
7M1MCY-#        10m         469     28000.6     28047.4
7M1MCY-#        15m         853     21000.4     21047.7
7M1MCY-#        20m          52     14005.0     14046.9
7M1MCY-#        40m         765      7000.4      7052.3
7M1MCY-#        80m          48      3507.5      3540.7
AA4VV-#         10m       13665     28000.1     28182.1
AA4VV-#         15m       22444     21000.0     21169.6
AA4VV-#         20m       23592     14000.0     14070.0
AA4VV-#         40m       21267      7000.0      7070.0
AA4VV-#         80m        8347      3500.0      3569.0
AA4VV-#        160m        1936      1802.0      1856.0
AC0C-#          10m       10524     28000.2     28091.0
AC0C-#          15m       18112     21000.0     21065.0
AC0C-#          20m       17942     14000.0     14055.0
AC0C-#          40m       19469      7000.0      7060.0
AC0C-#          80m        6894      3500.1      3565.0
AC0C-#         160m        1923      1802.0      1856.0
BA7NQ-#         10m        2966     28000.4     28069.9
BA7NQ-#         15m        3295     21000.6     21069.9
BA7NQ-#         20m        1916     14000.3     14070.0
BA7NQ-#         40m        2670      7000.7      7067.0
BH1LHS-#        10m          15     28001.7     28064.0
BH1LHS-#        15m         487     21001.0     21081.1
BH1LHS-#        20m         826     14000.3     14071.5
DE1LON-#        20m          43     14000.3     14047.6
DF1LON-#        10m           4     28010.0     28043.8
DF1LON-#        15m        7078     21000.1     21095.8
DF1LON-#        20m        3958     14000.1     14047.9
DF1LON-#        40m       11565      7000.2      7095.8
DF4UE-#         10m       17062     28000.1     28182.1
DF4UE-#         15m       19872     21000.0     21180.5
DF4UE-#         20m       21605     14000.0     14122.5
DF4UE-#         40m       13414      7000.0      7119.0
DF4UE-#         80m        5860      3500.0      3595.0
DF4UE-#        160m        1148      1807.0      1848.8
DF7GB-#         10m       11420     28000.2     28070.0
DF7GB-#         15m       14918     21000.0     21070.0
DF7GB-#         20m       19936     14000.0     14070.0
DF7GB-#         40m       11813      7000.0      7040.0
DF7GB-#         80m        7930      3500.0      3580.0
DF7GB-#        160m        1069      1810.6      1839.9
DJ3AK-#         10m       12853     28000.0     28150.0
DJ3AK-#         15m       17863     21000.0     21145.9
DJ3AK-#         20m       14872     14000.0     14128.0
DJ3AK-#         40m       14843      7000.0      7126.0
DJ3AK-#         80m        3946      3500.1      3629.3
DJ3AK-#        160m         771      1810.0      1847.0
DJ9IE-#         10m       11445     28000.2     28135.1
DJ9IE-#         15m       16805     21000.1     21119.9
DJ9IE-#         20m       20559     14000.1     14115.9
DJ9IE-#         40m       13122      7000.0      7085.9
DJ9IE-#         80m        8368      3500.1      3607.8
DK0TE-#         10m       10080     28000.0     28070.0
DK0TE-#         15m       14666     21000.0     21070.0
DK0TE-#         20m       17160     14000.0     14070.0
DK0TE-#         40m       11281      7000.0      7070.0
DK0TE-#         80m        7633      3500.0      3570.0
DK0TE-#        160m         863      1810.0      1839.9
DK1MAX-#        10m        1417     28000.2     28175.4
DK1MAX-#        15m         183     21000.2     21150.0
DK1MAX-#        20m           9     14020.1     14054.3
DK1MAX-#        40m          16      7000.6      7071.8
DK9IP-#         10m        3666     28000.2     28090.9
DK9IP-#         15m        9418     21000.0     21091.0
DK9IP-#         20m       16274     14000.1     14091.0
DK9IP-#         40m       15059      7000.0      7090.0
DK9IP-#         80m        7471      3500.0      3590.8
DK9IP-#        160m        1326      1807.0      1848.8
DL0LBS-#        80m        2549      3500.1      3547.8
DL1EMY-#        10m       14431     28000.2     28158.0
DL1EMY-#        15m       19266     21000.0     21163.3
DL1EMY-#        20m       21672     14000.0     14153.2
DL1EMY-#        40m       15962      7000.0      7100.0
DL1EMY-#        80m        8541      3500.0      3597.9
DL1EMY-#       160m        1625      1807.0      1847.0
DL2CC-#         10m        3616     28000.1     28089.6
DL2CC-#         15m        9048     21000.1     21091.0
DL2CC-#         20m       17092     14000.1     14091.0
DL2CC-#         40m       16077      7000.0      7090.1
DL2CC-#         80m         628      3500.5      3583.5
DL2CC-#        160m          96      1811.1      1847.0
DL3KR-#         10m        2693     28000.0     28125.9
DL3KR-#         15m       14667     21000.0     21125.5
DL3KR-#         20m        5633     14000.0     14099.9
DL3KR-#         40m        8740      7000.3      7120.4
DL3KR-#         80m        4002      3500.1      3609.1
DL3KR-#        160m          16      1812.5      1836.5
DL9GTB-#        15m       14893     21000.0     21081.2
DL9GTB-#        20m       20392     14000.0     14082.1
DL9GTB-#        40m       16753      7000.0      7070.0
DL9GTB-#        80m        9508      3500.0      3588.8
DL9GTB-#       160m        1607      1807.0      1841.3
DO4DXA-#        15m         101     21000.1     21047.1
DQ8Z-#          10m       16054     28000.0     28179.7
DQ8Z-#          15m       20015     21000.0     21164.2
DQ8Z-#          20m       20518     14000.0     14129.4
DQ8Z-#          40m       11635      7000.1      7114.3
DQ8Z-#          80m        6238      3500.0      3588.0
DQ8Z-#         160m        1144      1807.0      1840.0
EA4TX-#         10m        7748     28000.5     28070.1
EA4TX-#         15m       13304     21000.4     21070.1
EA4TX-#         20m       17513     14000.3     14070.1
EA4TX-#         40m       14191      7000.2      7070.0
EA4TX-#         80m        6627      3500.2      3569.2
EA5WU-#         10m          12     28001.0     28043.7
EA5WU-#         15m          32     21001.7     21044.7
EA5WU-#         20m          49     14000.6     14041.7
EA5WU-#         40m          16      7003.6      7032.6
EA5WU-#         80m           3      3501.0      3516.7
EA6VQ-#         10m          60     28000.9     28141.0
EI6BT-#         10m        4648     28000.5     28070.0
EI6BT-#         15m        7311     21000.2     21070.0
EI6BT-#         20m       10601     14000.1     14070.0
EI6BT-#         40m        4259      7000.1      7069.6
EI6BT-#         80m        1028      3500.7      3569.0
EI6BT-#        160m         184      1813.6      1837.8
EI6KH-#         10m          69     28001.9     28085.6
ES5PC-#         10m       12011     28000.0     28149.9
ES5PC-#         15m       15921     21000.0     21144.0
ES5PC-#         20m       18120     14000.0     14098.8
ES5PC-#         40m       14663      7000.1      7088.8
ES5PC-#         80m        7276      3500.0      3598.0
ES5PC-#        160m        1383      1807.0      1899.4
F4EGZ-#         10m        2330     28000.1     28155.7
F4EGZ-#         15m        3583     21000.1     21070.0
F4EGZ-#         20m        4872     14000.0     14070.0
F5VLY-#         40m        9689      7000.0      7069.9
F6IIT-#         10m       10881     28000.2     28069.9
F6IIT-#         15m       13970     21000.2     21070.0
F6IIT-#         20m       13414     14000.1     14070.0
F6IIT-#         40m       15291      7000.0      7070.0
F6IIT-#         80m        7823      3500.0      3569.4
F6IIT-#        160m        2023      1802.0      1840.0
G0KTN-#         10m        9390     28000.0     28091.1
G0KTN-#         15m       13871     21000.0     21070.0
G0KTN-#         20m       20081     14000.0     14091.1
G0KTN-#         40m       14646      7000.0      7070.0
G0KTN-#         80m        7867      3500.0      3569.3
G0KTN-#        160m        1673      1807.0      1840.0
G0PZA-#         10m        4382     28000.0     28070.0
G0PZA-#         15m       11200     21000.0     21070.0
G0PZA-#         20m       13285     14000.1     14070.0
G0PZA-#         40m       10961      7000.1      7070.0
G0PZA-#         80m        5920      3500.0      3570.0
G4IRN-#         40m        1439      7000.1      7035.0
G4MKR-#         10m        1453     28000.3     28157.0
G4MKR-#         15m         811     21000.0     21139.0
G4MKR-#         20m         756     14000.3     14079.8
G4MKR-#         40m        1184      7000.2      7079.5
G4MKR-#         80m         208      3500.4      3556.3
GI4DOH-#        10m          12     28033.1     28050.0
GI4DOH-#        15m         343     21044.4     21071.8
GI4DOH-#        20m        1799     14015.8     14039.5
GW8IZR-#        10m          45     28002.2     28087.7
GW8IZR-#        15m         100     21001.7     21079.0
GW8IZR-#        20m          78     14000.3     14067.5
GW8IZR-#        40m           4      7005.9      7028.9
GW8IZR-#        80m           2      3539.0      3571.0
HA1VHF-#        10m        3913     28000.5     28158.2
HA1VHF-#        15m        4104     21000.4     21138.3
HA1VHF-#        20m        9447     14000.2     14122.5
HA1VHF-#        40m        4994      7000.3      7109.8
HA1VHF-#        80m        1872      3500.2      3616.4
HA1VHF-#       160m         371      1810.2      1846.0
HA2EQD-#        10m         451     28000.2     28060.0
HA2EQD-#        15m         238     21000.3     21064.9
HA2EQD-#        20m         720     14000.3     14068.0
HA2EQD-#        40m         121      7001.2      7064.5
HA6M-#          10m         951     28000.2     28069.2
HA6M-#          15m        2848     21000.1     21070.0
HA6M-#          20m        7388     14000.0     14072.8
HA6M-#          40m        7656      7000.2      7059.9
HA6M-#          80m        5389      3500.0      3582.8
HA6M-#         160m        1063      1807.0      1840.0
HA6PX-#         10m       14862     28000.0     28182.1
HA6PX-#         15m       28809     21000.0     21143.0
HA6PX-#         20m       21632     14000.0     14104.9
HA6PX-#         40m       25129      7000.0      7088.7
HA6PX-#         80m        6953      3500.0      3591.0
HA6PX-#        160m         987      1807.0      1850.7
HB9DCO-#        10m        5439     28000.2     28070.0
HB9DCO-#        15m       15122     21000.0     21070.0
HB9DCO-#        20m       19702     14000.0     14070.0
HB9DCO-#        40m       14252      7000.0      7070.0
HB9DCO-#        80m        7477      3500.0      3570.0
HB9DCO-#       160m        1267      1807.0      1840.0
HB9FMN-#        15m          15     21010.1     21031.4
HB9FMN-#        80m          10      3503.3      3524.1
HB9SOF-#        10m        4905     28000.5     28069.8
HB9SOF-#        15m       11969     21000.4     21070.0
HB9SOF-#        20m       11524     14000.3     14070.0
HB9SOF-#        40m       11759      7000.0      7069.9
HB9SOF-#        80m        7053      3500.1      3569.1
HB9SOF-#       160m        1104      1807.0      1840.0
I6MAT-#         15m          11     21012.0     21057.9
IK0XBX-#        10m         102     28003.9     28090.4
IK0XBX-#        15m          11     21002.0     21101.9
IK0XBX-#        20m         177     14000.3     14115.1
IK0XBX-#        40m         105      7000.6      7047.0
IK0XBX-#        80m          93      3500.4      3549.4
IK0XBX-#       160m           7      1821.9      1840.4
IK3STG-#        10m        4806     28000.2     28070.0
IK3STG-#        15m       11301     21000.0     21070.0
IK3STG-#        20m       15836     14000.0     14069.9
IK3STG-#        40m       13096      7000.0      7070.0
IK3STG-#        80m        7403      3500.0      3570.0
IK3STG-#       160m         924      1807.0      1840.0
JA1LZR-#        10m         522     28001.0     28069.8
JA1LZR-#        15m        1378     21000.7     21069.7
JA1LZR-#        20m        3009     14000.1     14070.0
JA1LZR-#        40m        2586      7000.5      7069.0
JA1LZR-#        80m         624      3501.0      3545.5
JA1LZR-#       160m         112      1809.6      1831.0
JA4ZRK-#        10m        2567     28000.7     28089.8
JA4ZRK-#        15m        3569     21000.5     21090.3
JA4ZRK-#        20m        1142     14000.6     14082.7
JA4ZRK-#        40m        3310      7000.5      7045.4
JA4ZRK-#        80m         889      3501.0      3545.5
JA4ZRK-#       160m         120      1810.5      1831.0
JE1SGH-#        10m        3246     28000.0     28109.9
JE1SGH-#        15m        4748     21000.3     21142.0
JE1SGH-#        20m        4700     14000.1     14080.0
JE1SGH-#        40m        2709      7000.5      7049.5
JE1SGH-#        80m          97      3501.6      3529.5
JE1SGH-#       160m          11      1812.3      1824.5
JF2IWL-#        10m          98     28000.8     28043.9
JF2IWL-#        15m         242     21000.5     21067.7
JF2IWL-#        20m         336     14000.1     14044.1
JF2IWL-#        40m        1981      7000.5      7043.5
JF2IWL-#        80m         260      3503.9      3527.1
JG1VGX-#        10m          73     28003.5     28081.3
JG1VGX-#        15m         473     21000.9     21090.0
JG1VGX-#        20m         170     14005.0     14074.9
JG1VGX-#        40m        1585      7001.0      7057.1
JG1VGX-#        80m         566      3501.0      3553.0
JG1VGX-#       160m         134      1810.5      1830.8
JJ1LIB-#        15m        4813     21000.7     21070.0
JJ1LIB-#        20m        3172     14000.3     14069.8
JJ1LIB-#        40m        5093      7000.5      7067.1
JJ1LIB-#        80m        1152      3501.0      3562.8
K0FTC-#         10m        2418     28000.0     28107.5
K0FTC-#         15m        2595     21000.1     21106.1
K0FTC-#         20m        1256     14000.1     14112.0
K0FTC-#         40m         825      7000.2      7084.0
K0FTC-#         80m         132      3501.6      3554.0
K1TTT-#         10m       10525     28000.2     28091.1
K1TTT-#         15m       14378     21000.1     21091.1
K1TTT-#         20m       18513     14000.1     14091.0
K1TTT-#         40m       17123      7000.1      7089.7
K1TTT-#         80m        7109      3500.0      3588.8
K1TTT-#        160m        1491      1802.0      1886.4
K5TDA-#         40m       12115      7007.8      7049.9
K6XT-#          15m          50     21024.1     21070.2
K7EG-#          15m        4674     21000.0     21069.9
K7EG-#          20m        7710     14000.0     14089.0
K7EG-#          40m        7817      7000.2      7070.0
K8ND-#          10m       18712     28000.1     28182.1
K8ND-#          15m       22380     21000.0     21169.6
K8ND-#          20m       23257     14000.0     14140.0
K8ND-#          40m       20998      7000.0      7127.0
K8ND-#          80m        7054      3500.1      3597.4
K8ND-#         160m        1729      1802.0      1899.2
KA9SWE-#        10m       11810     28000.0     28092.9
KA9SWE-#        15m       20071     21000.1     21097.8
KA9SWE-#        20m         404     14000.5     14076.4
KA9SWE-#        40m        5741      7007.7      7103.5
KA9SWE-#       160m         799      1801.6      1856.0
KB9AMG-#        10m       16791     28000.3     28140.8
KB9AMG-#        15m       21961     21000.2     21140.7
KB9AMG-#        20m       16750     14000.1     14093.9
KB9AMG-#        40m       19457      7000.1      7093.9
KB9AMG-#        80m        5401      3500.1      3567.8
KB9AMG-#       160m        1319      1801.3      1867.7
KJ4SPG-#        10m        3650     28002.5     28097.7
KJ4SPG-#        15m        5745     21002.1     21097.8
KJ4SPG-#        20m        3753     14002.1     14097.8
KJ4SPG-#        40m        1435      7000.3      7087.3
KJ4SPG-#       160m         486      1806.4      1870.8
KL2R-#          10m         197     28000.8     28061.8
KL2R-#          15m         139     21002.0     21061.7
KL2R-#          20m         108     14001.0     14061.8
KL2R-#          40m          53      7000.6      7049.1
KL2R-#          80m         298      3501.0      3567.3
KM3T-#          10m       17435     28000.0     28300.0
KM3T-#          15m       23344     21000.0     21144.1
KM3T-#          20m       24139     14000.0     14131.6
KM3T-#          40m       21651      7000.0      7146.4
KM3T-#          80m        8184      3500.0      3598.7
KM3T-#         160m        1909      1802.0      1899.2
KQ8M-#          10m        5260     28000.1     28138.3
KQ8M-#          15m        4145     21000.4     21123.7
KQ8M-#          20m       16588     14000.0     14128.2
KQ8M-#          40m        8700      7000.2      7121.0
KQ8M-#          80m       10961      3500.1      3584.9
KQ8M-#         160m        2028      1801.2      1845.0
KU5B-#          10m        6596     28000.0     28093.8
KU5B-#          15m        6850     21000.0     21093.8
KU5B-#          20m        4830     14000.0     14093.8
KU5B-#          40m        4060      7000.2      7088.1
KU5B-#          80m         835      3500.3      3585.0
KU5B-#         160m         315      1805.0      1843.0
LA5EKA-#        10m        4346     28000.1     28071.0
LA5EKA-#        15m        9003     21000.0     21070.8
LA5EKA-#        20m       13994     14000.0     14070.8
LA5EKA-#        40m        9164      7000.1      7035.0
LA5EKA-#        80m        6812      3500.0      3575.9
LY2XW-#         20m         773     14017.1     14049.9
M0OSH-#         10m         310     28000.1     28075.0
N0TA-#          10m        2245     28000.1     28175.6
N0TA-#          15m       12255     21000.0     21151.0
N0TA-#          20m        1328     14000.1     14119.6
N0TA-#          40m         839      7000.0      7086.8
N0TA-#          80m          65      3501.0      3553.3
N0TA-#         160m           8      1812.0      1828.5
N4BAF-#         80m          35      3528.0      3549.0
N4ZR-#          10m       16087     28000.0     28203.3
N4ZR-#          15m       16330     21000.0     21151.6
N4ZR-#          20m       13170     14000.0     14110.0
N6GEO-#         15m        1054     21012.5     21105.0
N6GEO-#         20m         128     14015.1     14107.8
N6GEO-#         40m        1197      7000.5      7107.0
N6TV-#          10m       10417     28000.2     28130.0
N6TV-#          15m       16739     21000.0     21130.0
N6TV-#          20m       12354     14000.0     14121.4
N6TV-#          40m       11030      7000.2      7124.8
N6TV-#          80m        3331      3500.4      3586.0
N6TV-#         160m         880      1802.5      1845.1
N7TR-#          10m       14048     28000.0     28182.1
N7TR-#          15m       17073     21000.0     21171.1
N7TR-#          20m       15060     14000.0     14147.3
N7TR-#          40m       15004      7000.2      7124.8
N7TR-#          80m        4757      3500.3      3597.4
N8MSA-#         15m       11735     21000.3     21070.0
N8MSA-#         20m       14057     14000.2     14069.9
N8MSA-#         40m       14390      7000.1      7069.9
N8MSA-#         80m        4923      3500.1      3567.1
NC7J-#          10m       11529     28000.0     28091.0
NC7J-#          15m       12968     21000.0     21091.1
NC7J-#          20m       10963     14000.0     14091.1
NC7J-#          40m        8597      7000.2      7091.0
NN3RP-#         10m        7515     28000.1     28070.0
NN3RP-#         15m       16556     21000.0     21070.0
NN3RP-#         20m       18279     14000.0     14070.0
NN3RP-#         40m       15776      7000.0      7070.0
NN3RP-#         80m        3982      3500.1      3569.0
NU6O-#          10m        4925     28000.0     28149.3
NU6O-#          15m        2140     21000.0     21235.6
NU6O-#          20m         751     14000.3     14101.8
NU6O-#          40m        1477      7000.2      7118.0
NU6O-#          80m         935      3500.7      3610.4
NU6O-#         160m          33      1816.2      1836.3
NZ1U-#          10m         335     28000.9     28069.3
NZ1U-#          15m        1192     21000.3     21069.8
NZ1U-#          20m        4486     14000.0     14070.0
NZ1U-#          40m        3189      7000.0      7080.0
NZ1U-#          80m        1382      3500.3      3580.0
NZ1U-#         160m         224      1810.7      1843.0
OH2BBT-#        10m       16165     28000.0     28182.0
OH2BBT-#        15m       16037     21000.0     21070.0
OH2BBT-#        20m       22714     14000.0     14176.9
OH2BBT-#        40m       13262      7000.0      7070.0
OH2BBT-#        80m        7911      3500.0      3681.7
OH2BBT-#       160m        1267      1807.0      1840.0
OH6BG-#         10m        3999     28000.2     28267.9
OH6BG-#         15m       17225     21000.0     21091.1
OH6BG-#         20m       20625     14000.0     14091.1
OH6BG-#         40m       15819      7000.0      7090.0
OH6BG-#         80m        6759      3500.0      3591.0
OH6BG-#        160m        1372      1807.0      1859.9
OK2AW-#         10m          32     28014.0     28029.1
OK2AW-#         15m          15     21022.7     21028.2
OK2AW-#         20m           8     14022.9     14028.8
OM3WZ-#         10m        1053     28000.1     28082.7
OM3WZ-#         15m        5905     21000.1     21082.9
OM3WZ-#         20m        3677     14000.1     14082.5
OM3WZ-#         40m        5742      7000.2      7084.6
OM3WZ-#         80m         803      3500.0      3574.4
OM3WZ-#        160m          37      1815.0      1846.7
ON5KQ-#         10m         182     28000.2     28175.5
ON5KQ-#         15m         133     21000.4     21069.9
ON5KQ-#         20m          59     14000.5     14065.1
ON5KQ-#         40m           8      7012.8      7034.0
ON6ZQ-#         40m        4469      7021.1      7045.2
OZ5W-#          15m        5054     21000.1     21047.1
PA1T-#          10m        5815     28000.0     28045.5
PA1T-#          15m        9306     21000.0     21045.5
PA1T-#          20m       11964     14000.0     14045.5
PA1T-#          40m        8995      7000.0      7045.5
PA1T-#          80m        4381      3500.0      3545.5
PA1T-#         160m         890      1807.0      1840.0
PJ2T-#          10m       12338     28000.1     28179.9
PJ2T-#          15m       12777     21000.0     21150.8
PJ2T-#          20m       11343     14000.0     14127.9
PJ2T-#          40m       13481      7000.2      7124.0
PY1KN-#         10m        6085     28000.2     28168.4
PY1KN-#         15m        2790     21000.2     21119.9
PY1KN-#         20m        2494     14000.0     14099.1
PY1KN-#         40m         592      7000.4      7070.0
PY1NB-#         10m        1284     28001.0     28087.8
PY1NB-#         15m        1596     21000.8     21089.8
PY1NB-#         20m        2104     14000.4     14089.7
PY1NB-#         40m        1477      7000.4      7085.1
PY1NB-#         80m          67      3501.0      3534.7
R4WT-#          10m         203     28000.9     28064.3
R4WT-#          15m         305     21000.4     21068.7
R4WT-#          20m        1799     14000.3     14069.3
R4WT-#          40m        1532      7000.2      7070.0
R4WT-#          80m         201      3501.4      3569.0
R4WT-#         160m           8      1818.0      1830.0
R6YY-#          10m        4332     28000.0     28069.9
R6YY-#          15m        8362     21000.1     21070.0
R6YY-#          20m       11918     14000.1     14073.8
R6YY-#          40m        5677      7000.1      7070.0
R6YY-#          80m         786      3500.1      3582.7
R6YY-#         160m          14      1817.9      1840.0
RN3A-#          10m        1662     28000.3     28069.9
RN3A-#          15m        4687     21000.1     21070.0
RN3A-#          20m        8067     14000.1     14069.9
RN3A-#          40m        7371      7000.0      7070.0
RN3A-#          80m        1762      3500.0      3569.0
RN4WA-#         10m         467     28000.3     28060.4
RN4WA-#         15m        1011     21000.2     21069.3
RN4WA-#         20m        3269     14000.3     14069.9
RN4WA-#         40m        3250      7000.2      7069.8
RN4WA-#         80m        1318      3500.0      3569.0
RN4WA-#        160m         260      1817.0      1848.8
RZ3DVP-#        10m        1307     28000.3     28069.8
RZ3DVP-#        15m       10077     21000.1     21070.0
RZ3DVP-#        20m       12826     14000.0     14070.0
RZ3DVP-#        40m       10763      7000.1      7070.0
RZ3DVP-#        80m        4609      3500.0      3569.6
RZ3DVP-#       160m         706      1807.0      1840.0
RZ9UN-#         20m        4578     14000.4     14134.7
S50ARX-#        10m       11370     28000.0     28158.0
S50ARX-#        15m       18422     21000.0     21145.0
S50ARX-#        20m       20776     14000.0     14123.3
S50ARX-#        40m       17193      7000.0      7100.0
S50ARX-#        80m        6422      3500.0      3580.0
S50ARX-#       160m        1279      1807.0      1848.8
S55HHH-#        10m        2806     28000.2     28158.1
S55HHH-#        15m        7587     21000.0     21181.2
S55HHH-#        20m       12961     14000.0     14127.0
S55HHH-#        40m       12276      7000.0      7114.2
S55HHH-#        80m        3679      3500.0      3587.9
S55HHH-#       160m         996      1810.0      1918.5
S55OO-#         10m        1639     28000.2     28127.8
S55OO-#         15m         763     21000.2     21109.1
S55OO-#         20m        2223     14000.3     14087.3
S55OO-#         40m        1289      7000.4      7072.4
S55OO-#         80m         172      3501.0      3558.0
SE0X-#          10m        6121     28000.1     28069.9
SE0X-#          15m       12495     21000.0     21070.0
SE0X-#          20m       17107     14000.0     14070.0
SE0X-#          40m       10253      7000.0      7070.0
SE0X-#          80m        4908      3500.0      3569.8
SE0X-#         160m        1191      1800.2      1840.0
SK2AT-#         10m        3036     28000.2     28169.4
SK2AT-#         15m        8163     21000.0     21190.7
SK2AT-#         20m       12787     14000.0     14068.9
SK2AT-#         40m        4726      7000.2      7037.9
SK2AT-#         80m        3070      3500.0      3569.0
SK2AT-#        160m         351      1810.6      1848.8
SK3W-#          10m       11239     28000.2     28182.0
SK3W-#          15m       14108     21000.0     21181.4
SK3W-#          20m       14966     14000.0     14149.1
SK3W-#          40m        9853      7000.0      7120.7
SK3W-#          80m        4566      3500.1      3598.0
SK3W-#         160m        1115      1804.2      1914.1
SM2IUF-#        10m         138     28001.0     28050.0
SM6FMB-#        10m        8097     28000.5     28070.0
SM6FMB-#        15m       11873     21000.2     21070.0
SM6FMB-#        20m       16834     14000.2     14070.0
SM6FMB-#        40m       11718      7000.1      7070.0
SM6FMB-#        80m        5550      3500.0      3571.0
SM6FMB-#       160m         894      1810.1      1837.9
SV8RV-#         10m        4625     28000.0     28070.0
SV8RV-#         15m        3068     21000.0     21070.0
SV8RV-#         20m        8633     14000.0     14069.9
SV8RV-#         40m        7476      7000.2      7070.0
SV8RV-#         80m        3484      3500.0      3569.0
SV8RV-#        160m         862      1810.0      1840.0
TF3Y-#          10m        6664     28000.1     28069.9
TF3Y-#          15m       13876     21000.0     21070.0
TF3Y-#          20m       21795     14000.0     14070.0
TF3Y-#          40m       14948      7000.2      7070.0
TF4M-#          40m        4554      7000.1      7035.0
TF4M-#          80m        3422      3500.0      3545.5
TF4M-#         160m         911      1810.1      1840.0
US0KW-#         10m        7184     28000.2     28091.0
US0KW-#         15m       11881     21000.0     21091.1
US0KW-#         20m       12429     14000.0     14091.1
US0KW-#         40m        7471      7000.1      7070.0
US0KW-#         80m        3475      3500.0      3580.0
US0KW-#        160m         602      1811.1      1848.8
UT2UU-#         40m        4771      7000.1      7051.4
UT2UU-#         80m        4856      3500.0      3569.0
UT2UU-#        160m         993      1801.3      1837.9
V51YJ-#         10m        7246     28000.1     28070.0
V51YJ-#         15m        8848     21000.0     21070.0
V51YJ-#         20m        7881     14000.0     14070.0
V51YJ-#         40m        5182      7000.0      7070.0
VE6AO-#         10m        7977     28000.2     28070.0
VE6AO-#         15m       14669     21000.1     21072.7
VE6AO-#         20m       13294     14000.1     14072.8
VE6AO-#         40m       11392      7000.0      7069.9
VE6AO-#         80m        2945      3500.2      3566.9
VE7AB-#         10m        1080     28000.5     28045.5
VE7AB-#         15m        1262     21000.3     21045.4
VE7AB-#         20m        1251     14000.5     14045.5
VE9BWK-#        10m         235     28001.2     28109.9
VE9BWK-#        15m         507     21000.0     21128.8
VE9BWK-#        20m        1495     14000.4     14081.9
VE9BWK-#        40m        2058      7000.2      7053.8
VK2CCC-#       160m          17      1817.3      1828.5
VU2PTT-#        10m        1185     28000.3     28144.6
VU2PTT-#        15m        2603     21000.1     21150.2
VU2PTT-#        20m        4879     14000.2     14128.0
VU2PTT-#        40m        1159      7000.4      7076.0
W1NT-#          10m        2362     28000.2     28118.6
W1NT-#          15m        6236     21000.1     21140.1
W1NT-#          20m        5262     14000.1     14131.7
W1NT-#          40m        2304      7000.2      7120.8
W1NT-#          80m        1261      3500.3      3657.2
W1NT-#         160m         173      1808.8      1899.2
W2MKM-#        160m        2636      1810.8      1834.5
W2RDX-#         40m         291      7044.3      7144.5
W3LPL-#         10m       11600     28000.1     28080.0
W3LPL-#         15m        9399     21000.0     21080.0
W3LPL-#         20m       12180     14000.0     14079.9
W3LPL-#         40m       18575      7000.0      7070.0
W3OA-#          10m       16878     28000.0     28091.1
W3OA-#          15m       22377     21000.0     21091.1
W3OA-#          20m       22083     14000.0     14091.1
W3OA-#          40m       20353      7000.0      7090.0
W3OA-#          80m        5297      3500.1      3586.0
W3OA-#         160m        1602      1802.0      1856.0
W4AX-#          15m        6494     21000.1     21143.0
W4AX-#          20m        9391     14000.2     14121.7
W4AX-#          40m        9503      7000.2      7123.0
W4AX-#          80m        2931      3500.3      3580.0
W4AX-#         160m         573      1809.2      1845.0
W4KAZ-#         40m        9851      7007.1      7102.0
W4KAZ-#        160m        1450      1801.4      1890.0
W4KKN-#         10m        4766     28000.1     28288.1
W4KKN-#         15m        7409     21000.0     21150.1
W4KKN-#         20m       12696     14000.0     14117.9
W4KKN-#         40m       10070      7000.0      7128.0
W4KKN-#         80m        4485      3500.0      3620.0
W4KKN-#        160m        1569      1803.9      1850.8
W8WTS-#         10m       14433     28000.2     28070.0
W8WTS-#         40m       17831      7000.2      7070.0
W8WTS-#         80m        8026      3500.0      3569.0
W8WTS-#        160m        1578      1802.0      1840.0
WA3OPY-#        40m        7153      7000.3      7070.0
WA3OPY-#        80m        4142      3500.1      3569.0
WA3OPY-#       160m         317      1811.5      1839.4
WA7LNW-#        10m       18022     28000.1     28178.0
WA7LNW-#        15m       21003     21000.0     21130.0
WA7LNW-#        20m       16336     14000.0     14127.9
WA7LNW-#        40m       16289      7000.2      7090.0
WA7LNW-#        80m        4375      3500.3      3598.0
WA7LNW-#       160m        1163      1802.0      1845.1
WB2LSI-#        40m       28021      7000.2      7150.0
WB8BIL-#        15m        1221     21000.0     21076.2
WB8BIL-#        20m         330     14000.3     14099.7
WB8BIL-#        40m          29      7000.4      7054.8
WE4S-#          10m        6398     28000.3     28131.9
WE4S-#          15m        8998     21000.0     21101.4
WE4S-#          20m       11236     14000.1     14070.0
WE4S-#          40m        8476      7000.0      7112.1
WE4S-#          80m        2999      3500.3      3566.3
WE4S-#         160m        1367      1802.0      1856.1
WE9V-#          10m        9925     28000.1     28298.7
WE9V-#          15m       12435     21000.1     21171.4
WE9V-#          20m       16540     14000.1     14122.6
WE9V-#          40m       18072      7000.0      7124.0
WE9V-#          80m        4925      3500.1      3597.4
WE9V-#         160m         893      1802.0      1899.2
XV4Y-#          20m        8318     14000.0     14089.7
ZL1AOX-#        10m         990     28000.2     28069.9
ZL1AOX-#        15m        2628     21000.2     21069.8
ZL1AOX-#        20m        5562     14000.0     14069.9
ZL1AOX-#        40m        2517      7000.2      7070.0
ZL2HAM-#        10m        3612     28000.1     28178.1
ZL2HAM-#        15m        9352     21000.1     21150.1
ZL2HAM-#        20m       14486     14000.1     14122.6
ZL2HAM-#        40m        7574      7000.2      7118.0
ZL2HAM-#        80m         611      3500.8      3560.8
ZL2HAM-#       160m          61      1812.0      1833.0
ZL2RV-#         10m         819     28000.0     28070.0
ZL2RV-#         15m        2470     21000.0     21069.9
ZL2RV-#         20m       10086     14000.0     14070.0
ZL2RV-#         40m        4716      7000.2      7069.8
ZL2RV-#         80m         330      3500.9      3550.0
ZL2RV-#        160m          22      1817.5      1828.5

2014 ARRL DX CW

Most Spotted

Callsign      Spots    Mean S/N
---------   -------    --------
K3LR          43663        44.1
WE3C          40656        48.3
W3LPL         39602        48.4
W1UE          35152        52.9
EC2DX         34676        49.0
9A1A          31737        52.2
OL7M          29654        54.9
W4RM          29484        51.8
PJ2T          29339        49.0
HG1S          25876        42.9
NY4A          21799        55.8
CN2AA         20836        54.4
HK1NA         20801        49.7
K8AZ          20220        42.0
LZ9W          19998        49.0
SK3W          18697        52.1
IR1Y          18320        45.6
DL1A          17823        54.8
SO9Q          15494        49.7
W5RU          15445        50.0
VE3JM         15073        42.4
AA2A          14675        46.6
K0TV          14655        38.1
W1VE          14553        52.5
KB1H          14390        70.5
IR4M          14377        54.1
N0NI          14028        47.7
NN3W          13923        58.2
N2NT          13485        39.3
KH6LC         13347        51.1
TM6M          13272        48.5
W7RN          13100        38.3
EA5RS         13037        54.4
K0RF          12745        47.6
YU5R          12547        43.0
K3WW          12365        49.0
OM7M          12359        48.4
W2FU          11764        48.6
CR3L          11680        44.1
P40L          11583        48.3
KI1G          11542        40.8
W2YC          11356        53.3
K1RX          11227        41.0
AA3B          11171        34.9
SN7Q          11061        44.4
K0DQ          10785        57.9
K1LZ          10548        51.2
K4XS          10134        37.5
K1KP          10025        41.9
HA7GN          9931        54.2


Most Spotted Callsigns

     World-Wide    
Call          Spots
---------   -------
K3LR          43663
WE3C          40656
W3LPL         39602
W1UE          35152
EC2DX         34676
9A1A          31737
OL7M          29654
W4RM          29484
PJ2T          29339
HG1S          25876
NY4A          21799
CN2AA         20836
HK1NA         20801
K8AZ          20220
LZ9W          19998
SK3W          18697
IR1Y          18320
DL1A          17823
SO9Q          15494
W5RU          15445

               160m
Callsign      Spots  Pk. S/N  Med. S/N  Mean S/N
--------      -----  -------  --------  --------
K3LR           3791       76      30.0      44.8
9A1A           3109       72      27.0      40.9
W3LPL          2831       75      24.0      43.4
OL7M           2445       85      27.0      51.3
OM3GI          2266       99      30.0      65.5
M5O            2092       53      14.0      32.1
EC2DX          2073       78      14.0      45.0
S51V           1936       61      26.0      39.8
YU1EXY         1813       81      23.0      48.5
PJ2T           1797       79      14.0      50.1
WE3C           1727       58      24.0      38.1
VY2ZM          1513       86      13.0      54.2
VE3PN          1450       54      26.0      37.6
DL2SAX         1367       55      26.0      36.9
HG1S           1221       56      20.0      28.7
HA8FM          1040       92      27.0      61.9
HB9LCW          943       74      23.0      44.6
W1UE            886       49      24.0      33.1
HK1NA           857       90      18.0      60.7
N7GP            705       46      20.0      33.2

                80m
Callsign      Spots  Pk. S/N  Med. S/N  Mean S/N
--------      -----  -------  --------  --------
WE3C           5830       83      24.0      48.9
K3LR           5631       60      27.0      38.7
W3LPL          5537       92      28.0      55.0
EC2DX          4882       80      23.0      43.4
W1UE           4586       58      21.0      34.0
OL7M           4496       92      32.0      56.2
9A1A           4485       62      29.0      43.3
LX9DX          4375       91      26.0      54.7
DR4A           4372       68      29.0      44.2
DJ0MDR         4305       73      32.0      47.3
C6AKQ          4060       80      24.0      47.2
9A1CCY         3819       60      30.0      42.4
SP3GEM         3807       77      31.0      50.4
OK2EW          3787       67      32.0      45.8
F5CQ           3591       58      26.0      36.5
HG1S           3549       68      30.0      43.8
DM7C           3530       63      28.0      40.8
IK2CLB         3495       54      23.0      35.9
LZ9W           3377       70      33.0      45.7
W4RM           3309       84      27.0      49.5

                40m
Callsign      Spots  Pk. S/N  Med. S/N  Mean S/N
--------      -----  -------  --------  --------
K3LR          10801       79      25.0      40.9
W3LPL         10028       77      25.0      41.9
WE3C           9839       93      26.0      53.4
W4RM           9462       95      25.0      55.7
W3BGN          9076       90      25.0      50.7
N4WW           8801       76      26.0      41.7
LZ5K           8776       79      31.0      49.1
W1UE           8718       97      24.0      58.8
EC2DX          8220       92      27.0      54.3
KD2RD          7986       76      27.0      44.2
S56X           7756       64      24.0      40.6
S57Z           7753       76      23.0      42.1
PJ2T           7725       76      24.0      38.0
OM2VL          7203       91      29.0      54.3
9A1A           7087       87      25.0      50.3
N4UA           6646       62      26.0      39.1
HA8JV          6311       72      26.0      45.6
9A2AJ          6162       85      23.0      51.2
NY4A           6107       67      25.0      37.7
K8AZ           6107       82      25.0      45.0

                20m
Callsign      Spots  Pk. S/N  Med. S/N  Mean S/N
--------      -----  -------  --------  --------
K3LR          12124       64      22.0      36.5
WE3C          11541       59      21.0      35.3
W3LPL         11275       79      21.0      40.8
W1UE          10575       76      20.0      39.2
K4XS          10131       61      22.0      37.5
EC2DX         10131       81      21.0      42.0
OL7M          10022       64      23.0      41.9
9A2NA          9645       73      24.0      46.5
HA7GN          9534       82      23.0      54.4
N2MF           9007       71      23.0      38.8
HG1S           8781       72      20.0      42.2
9A1A           8701       68      24.0      42.2
HA8MD          8688       70      25.0      49.9
W4RM           8446       78      21.0      42.0
PJ2T           8026       63      18.0      33.7
OH8L           7919       75      23.0      39.0
FY5KE          7065       97      21.0      59.1
SM5INC         6915       60      20.0      33.7
HG5D           6885       69      25.0      47.2
W8TA           6785       83      22.0      45.5

                15m
Callsign      Spots  Pk. S/N  Med. S/N  Mean S/N
--------      -----  -------  --------  --------
WE3C           7378       70      25.0      40.1
K3LR           7068       79      23.0      44.5
IR8C           7013       82      24.0      48.7
NQ4I           6917       67      20.0      37.3
9A5D           6736       65      20.0      43.8
W1UE           6602       71      26.0      38.7
W3LPL          6357       87      23.0      49.9
EC2DX          6302       83      22.0      45.4
W4RM           6068       85      23.0      49.1
CN2AA          5920       95      22.0      57.4
KU2M           5768       86      26.0      49.0
K3RV           5750       80      26.0      43.8
SN5X           5737       91      26.0      54.7
9A5Y           5658       68      23.0      43.0
S57AL          5540       62      22.0      36.8
LX7I           5445       92      23.0      54.8
PJ2T           5395       92      20.0      55.4
OL7M           5347       98      26.0      60.9
SN8B           5243       68      24.0      38.1
SN2M           5237       88      23.0      52.4

                10m
Callsign      Spots  Pk. S/N  Med. S/N  Mean S/N
--------      -----  -------  --------  --------
WE3C           4341       62      19.0      38.3
K3LR           4248       87      20.5      51.4
EA8AH          4233       98      23.0      61.8
W1UE           3785       76      20.0      42.8
K2SSS          3736       81      20.0      46.6
HK1NA          3661       86      23.0      50.9
PJ2T           3591       72      21.0      39.9
W3LPL          3574       69      19.5      39.3
OK5R           3419       64      22.0      38.8
DL6FBL         3272       62      21.0      39.1
9A1A           3185       58      20.0      35.1
EC2DX          3068       65      20.0      34.3
ZW5B           3035       84      20.0      50.1
CR3L           2962       73      22.0      39.4
CR2A           2956       81      26.0      47.0
9A8WW          2948       63      20.0      34.4
CN2AA          2926       81      21.0      50.9
NP3A           2875       78      23.0      43.9
HA3NU          2875       91      19.0      56.7
HG1S           2868       81      20.0      47.0



   North America   
Call          Spots
---------   -------
K3LR          43663
WE3C          40656
W3LPL         39602
W1UE          35152
W4RM          29484
NY4A          21799
K8AZ          20220
W5RU          15445
VE3JM         15073
AA2A          14675
K0TV          14655
W1VE          14553
KB1H          14390
N0NI          14028
NN3W          13923
N2NT          13485
W7RN          13100
K0RF          12745
K3WW          12365
W2FU          11764

   South America   
Call          Spots
---------   -------
PJ2T          29339
HK1NA         20801
P40L          11583
PT2CM          8390
PJ4X           7079
FY5KE          7065
P40W           6320
P40LE          5516
HK3TU          5450
XR2V           3377
PT5T           3326
PX2F           3284
HK1N           3203
ZW5B           3035
ZY5M           2892
LU1FAM         2823
OA4SS          2601
CE1/K7CA       2601
PS2T           2531
LW5HR          2503

       Europe      
Call          Spots
---------   -------
EC2DX         34676
9A1A          31737
OL7M          29654
HG1S          25876
LZ9W          19998
SK3W          18697
IR1Y          18320
DL1A          17823
SO9Q          15494
IR4M          14377
TM6M          13272
EA5RS         13037
YU5R          12547
OM7M          12359
SN7Q          11061
HA7GN          9931
S54W           9814
9A2NA          9701
PI4TUE         8995
LZ5K           8879

       Africa      
Call          Spots
---------   -------
CN2AA         20836
CR3L          11680
EF8USA         6501
EF8S           4856
EA8AH          4234
3V8BB          3946
EA8CN          3826
EA8ZS          2940
EF8O           2646
SU9AF          2100
6W/G3TXF       2069
CT9/R9DX       1938
CN8KD          1878
EA8AVK          961
ZR9C            655
EA9EU           641
EA8NQ           638
CN3L            464
EF8R            410
D44CF           377

        Asia       
Call          Spots
---------   -------
JF1NHD         5295
5B/RN3QO       4534
JE1ZWT         4501
RT0C           3659
JA0QNJ         3442
JA8RWU         3006
JE1LFX         2628
JF2QNM         2321
JR8VSE         2269
UN6LN          2164
JH4UTP         1985
4K6FO          1964
RT0F           1921
JH4UYB         1896
B4TB           1660
RM0F           1656
UN6P           1581
C4Z            1569
UA0ZAM         1504
JS3CTQ         1459

      Oceania      
Call          Spots
---------   -------
KH6LC         13347
ZM1A           7636
KH7XX          4460
YJ0OU          2814
ZM90DX         2715
NH0S/KH2       1668
WH6R           1647
KH7M           1519
KH6CJJ         1398
KH6MB          1274
KH2/N2NL       1208
VK7CW          1066
NH2DX          1059
WH7W            936
VK7GN           911
ZL1BYZ          737
VK2AYD          488
KH6CW           461
VK2DX           406
VK2ELF          387

Tuesday, February 18, 2014

NCDXF Beacon Spotting Redux

Today, VE3NEA released Version 1.40 of Skimmer Server, which incorporates the Watch List feature.  Why do we care?  Because with this feature, any listed call is automatically treated as valid.  This means that If you take the other steps mentioned in my previous post, Skimmer Server will now spot the NCDXF beacons reliably.

Unlike in CW Skimmer, the Watch List feature of Skimserv is invisible.  You can use the Watch List editor in CW Skimmer, since both programs use the same Watch List, or you can put the list together yourself and put it in the right place.  Here's how:

Create a plain text file in Notepad, titled Watch.lst, in the Afreet\UserData folder on your machine.  Typically, in Windows 7 and 8 this means C:\Users\[Username}\Appdata\Roaming\Afreet\User Data.

The file needs to have the following content.  Of course, you can add calls to your heart's content, but this will do for the NCDXF beacons.  Also please remember that you will need to set the band segments and CW decoding segments to include the beacon frequencies, as explained in my last post:

4U1UN   
VE8AT
W6WX
KH6WO
ZL6B
VK6RBP
JA2IGY
RR9O
VR2B
4S7B
ZS6DN
5Z4B
4X6TU
OH2B
CS3B
LU4AA
OA4B
YV5B


73, Pete N4ZR

Tuesday, January 28, 2014

Want to Spot Beacons? Here's How.

Note - new information below in bold, since this was initially posted.

 From time to time, people ask me how to spot more beacons, or why RBN nodes don't spot more.

For many beacons, the question has a trite answer - because the nodes aren't covering and decoding the frequencies where the beacons are.  The question is "why?", and the answer lies in the SkimServ.ini file used by the Skimmer Server software, and in your Skimmer Server settings. The NCDXF beacons are a special case, and we'll deal with that a bit later.

First, the easy ones.  Open Skimmer Server, and select the Telnet tab.  Make sure that the box "Send only CQ Spots" is unchecked.  Unless you do this, you'll never send any beacon spots.  Set the Validation level to "Normal", because the beacons may not be sending the keywords or the optimum number of repeats of their callsigns needed to be recognized by CW Skimmer.

Now let's fix the .ini file.  The first small challenge is to find the file.  In Windows XP, it is typically installed in the Afreet folder under Program Files.  In Windows 7 and beyond, you'll most likely find it in C:\Users\[your logon name]\AppData\Roaming\Afreet.

Once you track it down. open it and you'll see this group of lines:

CenterFreqs48=1822750,3522750,3568250,7022750,10122750,14022750,14068250,18090750,
21022750, 21068250,24912750,28022750,28068250,50022750,50068250,50113750,50159250
CenterFreqs96=1845500,3545500,7045500,10145500,14045500,18113500,21045500,24935500,
28045500, 28136500,50045500,50136500
CenterFreqs192=1891000,3591000,7091000,10191000,14091000,18159000,21091000,24981000,
28091000,50091000
SegmentSel48=000101001
SegmentSel96=001111111
SegmentSel192=001111111
CwSegments=1800000-1840000,3500000-3590000,7000000-7090000,10100000-10130000,
14000000-14090000,18068000-18095000,21000000-21090000,24890000-24920000,
28000000-28090000,50000000-50100000

The first three rows are center frequencies for each of the three possible bandwidths.  You'll note that the actual bandwidth covered by each is slightly less than its name would suggest - for example, 192 KHz actually covers 91 KHz below and 91 KHz above the center frequency, not 96.  With many of the beacons you want to spot 100 and more KHz above the lower band edge, you'll want to run 192 KHz bandwidth to be sure to find them - on 10 meters, some are even above 28.182, so you may want to define a second 10-meter segment to allow your QS1R to listen higher.

The next magic trick is in the line titled "CWSegments."  This is something that Alex added in order to conserve computer power by not decoding a lot of junk, like RTTY, PSK31, etc.  Fortunately, the way Alex implemented it is quite flexible.  You can add segments at will, simply by adhering to the format, which uses frequencies to the nearest Hz, and separating them with a comma  For example, if you want to capture the NCDXF beacon frequency on 20 meters, you'll want to add a CW Segment of 14095000-14105000.  To avoid all the RTTY activity on 20 meters, you might want to split the 20M segment in two - 14000000-14070000,14095000-14105000.

Incidentally, if you like to make as many contest spots as possible, you may also want to modify this line, because during CW contests people frequently operate up into and well beyond the RTTY/PSK segment.  The cost of opening it up, of course, is that if the RTTY guys stick it out during the CW contest, you'll get some of the "EE5EEE" type of junk spots.

The NCDXF beacons are a special case, because they only sign their callsigns once before they begin their power step-downs, and then the next beacon takes over.  As a result, CW Skimmer and Skimmer Server often don't hear enough repetitions to validate and spot a callsign.  

CW Skimmer has a special function called a Watch List, which is discussed in the Help file.  Put the beacon callsigns on the list, and they will be spotted the first time they are heard. Unfortunately, there is no Watch List in Skimmer Server.  Alex says that there is an update in the works, and hopefully this capability will be added.  Stay tuned.

So that's the story to date.  Let me know if you find this useful.

73, Pete N4ZR







Tuesday, December 24, 2013

A New Tutorial on Using the RBN

It has been over three years since I last wrote a tutorial for users of RBN spots, and I was amazed when I read the old one to discover how much things had changed.  Here's the current word.

There are two RBN Telnet servers, at telnet.reversebeacon.net port 7000 and arcluster.reversebeacon.net, port 7000.  The intended use of these servers, however, is not to provide spots to end users, but rather to feed spots to AR Cluster and CC Cluster nodes worldwide for "retail" distribution.

To find a cluster node that provides what you want, go to and search by software type. Of course, geography is pretty unimportant these days, with the demise of RF clusters, but you'll want to check to be sure the node you use has Skimmer spots from the RBN as well as the filtering capabilities you want.
 
Both ARCluster Version 6 and CC Cluster provide a choice to users as to whether to include spots from the RBN in the spots they receive.  More importantly, each has its own set of filtering capabilities, with quite different underlying philosophies.  Why filter? Because even on a Monday morning, the RBN typically pumps out more than 120 spots per minute, and during a contest, the flow can be 20 per second average.

If you use a VE7CC (CC Cluster) node, he has already made some decisions for you.  His nodes provide de-duped data, which all by itself will cut the volume of spots by more than 80 percent, and he has done some pre-processing to reduce busted spots.

A complete list of CC Cluster commands is at http://bcdxc.org/ve7cc/ccc/CCC_Commands.htm. The easiest way to set filters is to use the very versatile CC User client program, available from http://www.bcdxc.org/ve7cc/default.htm#prog



state province

Among other useful features, CC User can be used between a cluster node and a logging program, to make it easy for you to manage your filters.

A caution - CC User is usable with DX Spider, CC and AR Cluster version 4 nodes.  It is not compatible with AR Cluster Version 6, which has adopted an entirely new  "Boolean" filter syntax.

The AR Cluster commands are at http://ab5k.net/ArcDocsVer6/UserManual/ArcCmdSummary.htm.  As you can see, the default AR Cluster posture is not to remove duplicate spots.  This offers one important benefit - to use a program such as Viewprop, which relies on spots to and from your area to give you a near-real-time portrayal of propagation, you must have access to all spots of each station.

AR Cluster also has a client program, available at AB5K's web site.  It provides for setting a wide variety of user-defined filters, including duplicate removal if you wish



A feature not found in CC Cluster is the inclusion of CT1BOH's "skimquality" algorithms, which flag verified spots (ones heard by more than 2 Skimmers), QSYing stations (which may occasionally be image spots), and busted spots (based on a complex statistical algorithm.  Here's a sample of the output:





 
Note the spot of OK7FL as K7FL, about 3/4 of the way down - the algorithm not only identifies the spot as a likely bust, but also tells you what the correct call is.  You can filter on any combination of these attributes - for example, so that you do not see busted spots, or QSY spots until they are verified by at least 3 Skimmers.

A beauty of the AR Cluster filtering approach is that you can create compound filter selections to store very complex filtering combinations as a single string.  for example, the Hi-Q button on my N1MM Logger Telnet window above, when clicked, tells the cluster "SET DX FILTER call=n4zr OR (NOT Skimbusted and spotterstate=[MD,PA,VA,NJ,WV, NY,NJ,NC]).  This lets through any spots of my station from anywhere in the world, and lets through both Skimmer and traditional spots from the states listed, deleting any that the cluster believes to be busted.  Here's a sample with the filter in use:



Note that since I did not choose to block the first spot of a new station or a previously-spotted station on a new frequency, spots coded ? and Q come through immediately. 

That's about the whole story.  I hope this encourages more people to use Skimmer/RBN spots for CW, RTTY and BPSK.

73, Pete N4ZR